Rebel with a Cause: Yu Chin-o’s (1922-1950) Anti-American Poetry

26/06/2011

Reading up on the turbulent events of the so-called Liberation Period (1945-1950) the other day, I came across the story of poet Yu Chin-o. (유진오, not to be confused with another South Korean writer with the same name)

Debuting in November 1945 with his poem The Sound of the Flute (피릿소리), his poetry soon evolved into a stinging criticism of the political reality in South Korea. He couldn’t bear to see an American Military Government holding the reigns, while pro-Japanese Korean politicians and policemen were put in place to give legitimacy toAmerica’s rule.

Poems like Let’s go this Way (이대로 가자) and Just close your Eyes! (눈 감으라 고요히) written at the end of 1945 were just the beginning of his rebellion against the political situation. By July 1946 he became a well-loved figure within the leftist Korean Writer’s League (조선문학가동맹), who asked him to recite his poetry at every meeting.

Munhakkatongmaeng

Cover of the Korean Writer's League magazine Munhak (Literature)

It was not long before Yu found himself on an American government blacklist. The reciting of South of the 38th Parallel (38이남) on the 29th of August 1946 at a YMCA meeting, and especially the huge response he got from the 100.000 audience members after reciting his most famous poem For whom is our youthful heart filled? (누구를 위한 벅차는 우리의 젊음이냐?) at Dongdaemun Stadium on the 1st of September 1946, were the last straw for the southern government. A few days later he got arrested for violations against the military government and was duly convicted to 1 year imprisonment.

His poetry doesn’t leave it to the imagination who Yu Chin-o was criticizing. In For whom is our youthful heart filled? we find the following stanza:

 The flock which has been brought up in a cherishing manner
Received the seed of Barbarians.
Now also their shape has changed,
And we bow our heads,
In front of these new xxx [probably a very strong cuss word] guests
For the sake of praying for alms like life, property and fame

왜놈들의 씨를 받아
소중히 기르던 무리들이
이제 또한 모양만이 달라진
새로운 xxx의 손님네들 앞에
머리를 숙여
생명과 재산과 명예의
적선을 빌고 있다

 During his imprisonment several leftist writers and friends plead for his release. Poet Im Hwa praised Yu in his poems Song of Praise (찬가) and Yu Chin-o who is in Prison (옥중의 유진오). Oh Chang-hwan wrote of the sentencing: “If Yu Chin-o is guilty, what about the tens of thousands of audience members that cheered loudly upon hearing his poem? Are these people then not an accomplice in the crime?”

Ch'ang

Cover of Yu Chin-o's anthology Ch'ang (1948, Window)

After his release the literary world in the south had changed dramatically. Leftist writer organizations were banned and many leftist writers including the above-mentioned Im Hwa and Oh Chang-hwan had fled north. In February 1949 Yu Chin-o became a partisan in the Chirisan mountains, but was taken prisoner by the South Korean army at the end of March. For his activities he was sentenced to death, but thanks to his older brother who worked as a prosecutor, the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. Soon after the Korean War broke out, however, Yu Chin-o was most likely executed by the South Korean government.

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Where are the origins of Korea’s Modern Literature? (Part 2)

11/06/2011

I hope from last week’s installment it became clear that finding the exact origins of Korea’s literary modernity is impossible and that it is only possible to find some “internal” and “external” clues that changed Korea’s literature to a level that we today would call ‘modern’. This time I look at the literary works that appeared at the beginning of the 20th century.

I left you with the comment that literature at the end of the 19th Century was didactic in nature. This sort of literature remained popular as the 20th century began with works such as Chang Chihyŏn’s The Tale of the Patriotic Wife (Aeguk Puinchŏn, 1907) and Shin Ch’aeho’s Ŭljimundŏk (1908). The former tells the story of Jeanne d’Arc. Writing this work was done with the intention to provide Korean women with a modele heroine whose patriotic example should be followed. The latter story is about Ŭljimundŏk, a famous general from the Koguryŏ period. This story shows the reader that heroic figures who rise to the occassion in times of a national crisis did exist previously in Korea’s history.
lot of the stories are related to the predominant concern of intellectuals to ‘translate civilisation’ (munmyŏng-ŭi bŏnyŏk) in order to introduce the reader to Western knowledge and spread these ideas throughout Korea, so that Korea would become civilized (civilized in this respect would probably mean to become a modern nation-state). With the encroachment of various foreign powers on Korea’s soil, the intellectuals sensed that in order to keep the independence of Korea, it was necessary to strengthen Korea’s institutions and identity. (For a comprehensive overview of this issue look here) The stories of Shin Ch’aeho and Chang Chihyŏn, therefore, can be seen as an attempt to instill the idea of nationalism in its readers.

The civilisation that the intellectuals envisioned should, of course, be built upon the Confucianist foundation that was already present, and therefore we find in the same period fables that focus on wrong moral attitudes that created social problems. Examples of these works are Yu Wŏnp’yo’s Dreaming of Zhuge Liang (1908) or An Kuksŏn’s Council of Birds and Beasts (1908). In Dreaming of Zhuge Liang, the narrator dreams that he meets with the famous Chinese politician Zhuge Liang (who lived from 181-234). He discusses contemporary problems with him, and then criticizes the political situation in which Korea finds itself today.
Critique of society and the changing times could also be shaped in the form of satire of which the stories Questions between a Blind Man and a Cripple (소경과 안즘방이 문답, 1905) and Misunderstanding of Rickshaw Men (거부오해, 1906) that appeared in the Daehan Maeil Shinbo are most representative. The first of these works follows the conversations between a blind man practicing divination and a cripple who makes headbands for a living, in which they mostly talk about the foreign encroachment upon Korea, the corruption of government officials, and ineffective reforms. The second story criticizes the new institutional reforms, especially that of the establishment of the Residency-General.

Another issue that arose during this period is that of Korea’s written language system. As is clear from the newspapers of the time, there is no unified agreement on which script was regarded as the national language (kukmun), let alone that there was a unification of grammatical rules. Several writing systems were present, one written in classical Chinese (hanmun), one mixing Chinese characters with Korean, and one using only the Korean script. This confusion as to what constitutes the Korean national language lead to many open discussions in the newspapers. For example the Toknip shinmun (The Independent) of the 5th of August 1898 wrote a commentary on the cons of using the mixed script (kukhanmun) in that it interferes with Korea’s independence, since it is Chinese and also because it just takes too much time to learn. Furthermore the power rests with people who know the language, and since the country should be for all people only the Korean script should be used. (Although obviously this is not mentioned in the commentary, this anti-Chinese argument was without a doubt influenced by the Qing’s defeat in 1895).

This is just one such opinions appearing in the papers, with many others vehemently promoting one of the other scripts. Of course in hindsight the opinion of in the Independent newspaper won out, but this was far from being an obvious result. In South Korean scholarship a lot of research is nowadays being done on these turn of the century discussions on Korea’s language system and make for interesting reading.

In the next part we will turn to the publication of Korea’s ‘first’ modern novel, which is regarded to be Yi Kwangsu’s The Heartless (Mujŏng) published in 1917.

The Tale of the Patriotic Wife (left) The Council of Birds and Beasts (top right)

The covers of the Tale of the Patriotic Wife (left) and the Council of Birds and Beasts (top right)